Nintendo announced that the Android version of the Super Mario Run is in development.
This information was published in the latest results PDF document on the official website but the Android version release later than the iOS version.

The iOS edition will be available from 2016 December as it was planned first and you can sync it with your Miitomo on both platforms but you can play with it without your Miitomo.
More details about the Android version will be published later in this year.